(نموذج لعنصر كيميائي البنزين Benzene)

 

 

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Section 1 - CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

 

 

 

 

 

PRODUCT NAME: BENZENE

 

 

 

 

SYNONYMS

C6H6, benzol, benzole, benzolene, "coal naptha", cyclohexatriene, "mineral naphtha", "motor benzol", "nitration benzene", phene, "phenyl hydride", pyrobenzol, pyrobenzole, benzine

 

 

 

 

PROPER SHIPPING NAME

BENZENE

 

 

 

 

PRODUCT USE

DANGEROUS POISON. Manufacture of chemicals including styrene, dyes, and many other organic chemicals. Has been used in artificial leather, linoleum, oil cloth, airplane dopes, lacquers; as solvent for waxes, resins, oils etc. May also be a minor component of gasoline, petrol. Exposure should be minimised by use in closed systems. Handling procedures and control measures should be evaluated for exposure before commencement of use in plant operations.

 

 

 

 

SUPPLIER

Company: APS Specialty Chemicals

AUS Telephone: +61 02 9839 4000

 

Company: Ajax Chemicals Division

 

 

Company: Ajax Finechem

AUS Telephone: +61 2 9524 7744

 

Company: Chem-Supply Pty Ltd

AUS Telephone: +61 2 8440 2000

 

 

Company: MP Biomedicals Pty Ltd

AUS Emergency Tel: +61 2 9838 7422

 

Company: Merck Pty Ltd

AUS Emergency Tel: +61 3 9728 5855

 

 

Company: Sigma-Aldrich Pty Ltd

AUS Emergency Tel: +44 8701906777

 

Company: Unknown Supplier

AUS Telephone: Test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAZARD RATINGS

 

 

Min

Max

Flammability:

3

Toxicity:

2

Body Contact:

2

Reactivity:

1

Chronic:

4

 

Min/Nil=0

Low=1

Moderate=2

High=3

Extreme=4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

 

 

 

 

 

STATEMENT OF HAZARDOUS NATURE

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. DANGEROUS GOODS. According to the Criteria of NOHSC, and the ADG Code.

 

 

 

 

 

POISONS SCHEDULE

S7 NZS2

 

 

 

 

RISK

SAFETY

Highly flammable.

Keep locked up.

Irritating to eyes and skin.

Keep away from sources of ignition. No smoking.

May cause CANCER.

Do not breathe gas/ fumes/ vapour/ spray.

May cause heritable genetic damage.

In case of insufficient ventilation wear suitable respiratory equipment.

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation in contact with skin and if swallowed.

Use only in well ventilated areas.

HARMFUL - May cause lung damage if swallowed.

Keep container in a well ventilated place.

Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.

Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.

Cumulative effects may result following exposure*.

To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material use water and detergent.

* (limited evidence).

Keep container tightly closed.

 

This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.

 

Keep away from food drink and animal feeding stuffs.

 

Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.

 

In case of contact with eyes rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.

 

This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.

 

In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 3 - COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

 

 

 

 

 

NAME

CAS RN

%

benzene

71-43-2

99.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES

 

 

 

 

 

SWALLOWED

  • If spontaneous vomiting appears imminent or occurs, hold patient's head down, lower than their hips to help avoid possible aspiration of vomitus.
  • If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
  • If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
  • Observe the patient carefully.
  • Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious.
  • Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
  • Seek medical advice.

Avoid giving milk or oils. Avoid giving alcohol.

EYE

If this product comes in contact with the eyes:

  • Wash out immediately with fresh running water.
  • Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
  • If pain persists or recurs seek medical attention.
  • Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.

SKIN

If skin contact occurs:

  • Immediately remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
  • Flush skin and hair with running water (and soap if available).
  • Seek medical attention in event of irritation.

INHALED

  • If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
  • Other measures are usually unnecessary.

 

 

 

 

NOTES TO PHYSICIAN

Any material aspirated during vomiting may produce lung injury. Therefore emesis should not be induced mechanically or pharmacologically. Mechanical means should be used if it is considered necessary to evacuate the stomach contents; these include gastric lavage after endotracheal intubation. If spontaneous vomiting has occurred after ingestion, the patient should be monitored for difficult breathing, as adverse effects of aspiration into the lungs may be delayed up to 48 hours.
For acute or short term repeated exposures to petroleum distillates or related hydrocarbons:

  • Primary threat to life, from pure petroleum distillate ingestion and/or inhalation, is respiratory failure.
  • Patients should be quickly evaluated for signs of respiratory distress (e.g. cyanosis, tachypnoea, intercostal retraction, obtundation) and given oxygen. Patients with inadequate tidal volumes or poor arterial blood gases (pO2 50 mm Hg) should be intubated.
  • Arrhythmias complicate some hydrocarbon ingestion and/or inhalation and electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial injury has been reported; intravenous lines and cardiac monitors should be established in obviously symptomatic patients. The lungs excrete inhaled solvents, so that hyperventilation improves clearance.
  • A chest x-ray should be taken immediately after stabilisation of breathing and circulation to document aspiration and detect the presence of pneumothorax.
  • Epinephrine (adrenalin) is not recommended for treatment of bronchospasm because of potential myocardial sensitisation to catecholamines. Inhaled cardioselective bronchodilators (e.g. Alupent, Salbutamol) are the preferred agents, with aminophylline a second choice.
  • Lavage is indicated in patients who require decontamination; ensure use of cuffed endotracheal tube in adult patients. [Ellenhorn and Barceloux: Medical Toxicology]

Consider complete blood count. Evaluate history of exposure.

 

 

 

 

 

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

 

 

 

 

 

EXTINGUISHING MEDIA

  • Foam.
  • Dry chemical powder.
  • BCF (where regulations permit).
  • Carbon dioxide.
  • Water spray or fog - Large fires only.

FIRE FIGHTING

  • Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
  • May be violently or explosively reactive.
  • Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
  • Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
  • Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
  • Fight fire from a safe distance, with adequate cover.
  • If safe, switch off electrical equipment until vapour fire hazard removed.
  • Use water delivered as a fine spray to control fire and cool adjacent area.
  • Avoid spraying water onto liquid pools.
  • DO NOT approach containers suspected to be hot.
  • Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
  • If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.

FIRE/EXPLOSION HAZARD

  • Liquid and vapour are highly flammable.
  • Severe fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame and/or oxidisers.
  • Vapour may travel a considerable distance to source of ignition.
  • Heating may cause expansion or decomposition leading to violent rupture of containers.
  • On combustion, may emit toxic fumes of carbon monoxide (CO).

Combustion products include: carbon dioxide (CO2), other pyrolysis products typical of burning organic material.

  • Hot organic vapours or mist are capable of sudden spontaneous combustion when mixed with air even at temperatures below their published autoignition temperatures.
  • The temperature of ignition decreases with increasing vapour volume and vapour/air contact times and is influenced by pressure change.
  • Ignition may occur under elevated-temperature process conditions especially in processes performed under vacuum subjected to sudden ingress of air or in processes performed at elevated pressure, where sudden escape of vapours or mists to the atmosphere occurs.

FIRE INCOMPATIBILITY

Avoid contamination with oxidising agents i.e. nitrates, oxidising acids, chlorine bleaches, pool chlorine etc. as ignition may result.

 

 

 

 

HAZCHEM

3WE

 

 

 

 

 

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

 

 

 

 

 

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

 

 

 

 

MINOR SPILLS

  • Remove all ignition sources.
  • Clean up all spills immediately.
  • Avoid breathing vapours and contact with skin and eyes.
  • Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
  • Contain and absorb small quantities with vermiculite or other absorbent material.
  • Wipe up.
  • Collect residues in a flammable waste container.

MAJOR SPILLS
Chemical Class: aromatic hydrocarbons
For release onto land: recommended sorbents listed in order of priority.

SORBENT TYPE

RANK

APPLICATION

COLLECTION

LIMITATIONS

LAND SPILL - SMALL

Feathers - pillow

1

throw

pitchfork

DGC, RT

cross-linked polymer - particulate

2

shovel

shovel

R,W,SS

cross-linked polymer- pillow

2

throw

pitchfork

R, DGC, RT

sorbent clay - particulate

3

shovel

shovel

R, I, P,

treated clay/ treated natural organic - particulate

3

shovel

shovel

R, I

wood fibre - pillow

4

throw

pitchfork

R, P, DGC, RT

LAND SPILL - MEDIUM

cross-linked polymer -particulate

1

blower

skiploader

R, W, SS

treated clay/ treated natural organic - particulate

2

blower

skiploader

R, I

sorbent clay - particulate

3

blower

skiploader

R, I, P

polypropylene - particulate

3

blower

skiploader

W, SS, DGC

feathers - pillow

3

throw

skiploader

DGC, RT

expanded mineral - particulate

4

blower

skiploader

R, I, W, P, DGC

Legend
DGC: Not effective where ground cover is dense
R; Not reusable
I: Not incinerable
P: Effectiveness reduced when rainy
RT:Not effective where terrain is rugged
SS: Not for use within environmentally sensitive sites
W: Effectiveness reduced when windy
Reference: Sorbents for Liquid Hazardous Substance Cleanup and Control;
R.W Melvold et al: Pollution Technology Review No. 150: Noyes Data Corporation 1988.

  • Clear area of personnel and move upwind.
  • Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
  • May be violently or explosively reactive.
  • Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
  • Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
  • Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
  • No smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
  • Increase ventilation.
  • Stop leak if safe to do so.
  • Water spray or fog may be used to disperse / absorb vapour.
  • Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite.
  • Use only spark-free shovels and explosion proof equipment.
  • Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling.
  • Absorb remaining product with sand, earth or vermiculite.
  • Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal.
  • Wash area and prevent runoff into drains.
  • If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.

 

 

 

 

PROTECTIVE ACTIONS FOR SPILL

 

 

 

 

From IERG (Canada/Australia)

Isolation Distance

50 metres

Downwind Protection Distance

300 metres

IERG Number

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOOTNOTES

 

 

 

 

1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwind protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction. Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to take protective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all persons without appropriate protection to life-threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a small cylinder are also considered "small spills". LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a "one-tonne" compressed gas cylinder.
5 Guide 130 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.

 

 

 

 

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING GUIDELINES (ERPG)

 

 

 

 

The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour WITHOUT experiencing or developing

life-threatening health effects is:

benzene

1000ppm


irreversible or other serious effects or symptoms which could impair an individual's ability to take protective action is:

benzene

150ppm


other than mild, transient adverse effects without perceiving a clearly defined odour is:

benzene

50ppm


American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)

Ingredients considered according exceed the following cutoffs

Very Toxic (T+)

>= 0.1%

  

Toxic (T)

>= 3.0%

R50

>= 0.25%

  

Corrosive (C)

>= 5.0%

R51

>= 2.5%

  

  

  

else

>= 10%

  

  

  

where percentage is percentage of ingredient found in the mixture

 

 

 

 

 

SAFE STORAGE WITH OTHER CLASSIFIED CHEMICALS

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

+

 

 

 

 

 

X: Must not be stored together

O: May be stored together with specific preventions

+: May be stored together

 

 

 

 


Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.

 

 

 

 

 

Section 7 - HANDLING AND STORAGE

 

 

 

 

 

PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING

  • Containers, even those that have been emptied, may contain explosive vapours.
  • Do NOT cut, drill, grind, weld or perform similar operations on or near containers.
  • DO NOT allow clothing wet with material to stay in contact with skin
  • Electrostatic discharge may be generated during pumping - this may result in fire.
  • Ensure electrical continuity by bonding and grounding (earthing) all equipment.
  • Restrict line velocity during pumping in order to avoid generation of electrostatic discharge (<=1 m/sec until fill pipe submerged to twice its diameter, then <= 7 m/sec).
  • Avoid splash filling.
  • Do NOT use compressed air for filling discharging or handling operations.
  • Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
  • Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
  • Use in a well-ventilated area.
  • Prevent concentration in hollows and sumps.
  • DO NOT enter confined spaces until atmosphere has been checked.
  • Avoid smoking, naked lights, heat or ignition sources.
  • When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
  • Vapour may ignite on pumping or pouring due to static electricity.
  • DO NOT use plastic buckets.
  • Earth and secure metal containers when dispensing or pouring product.
  • Use spark-free tools when handling.
  • Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
  • Keep containers securely sealed.
  • Avoid physical damage to containers.
  • Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
  • Work clothes should be laundered separately.
  • Use good occupational work practice.
  • Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
  • Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions.

 

 

 

 

SUITABLE CONTAINER

  • Packing as supplied by manufacturer.
  • Plastic containers may only be used if approved for flammable liquid.
  • Check that containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.
  • For low viscosity materials (i) : Drums and jerry cans must be of the non-removable head type. (ii) : Where a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
  • For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C)
  • For manufactured product having a viscosity of at least 250 cSt. (23 deg. C)
  • Manufactured product that requires stirring before use and having a viscosity of at least 20 cSt (25 deg. C)

(i) : Removable head packaging;
(ii) : Cans with friction closures and
(iii) : low pressure tubes and cartridges may be used.

  • Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages
  • In addition, where inner packagings are glass and contain liquids of packing group I there must be sufficient inert absorbent to absorb any spillage, unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.

STORAGE INCOMPATIBILITY

  • Avoid reaction with oxidising agents

STORAGE REQUIREMENTS

  • Store in original containers in approved flame-proof area.
  • No smoking, naked lights, heat or ignition sources.
  • DO NOT store in pits, depressions, basements or areas where vapours may be trapped.
  • Keep containers securely sealed.
  • Store away from incompatible materials in a cool, dry well ventilated area.
  • Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
  • Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.

 

 

 

 

 

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION

 

 

 

 

 

EXPOSURE CONTROLS

 

 

 

 

Source

Material

TWA ppm

TWA mg/m³

STEL ppm

STEL mg/m³

Peak ppm

Peak mg/m³

TWA F/CC

Australia Exposure Standards

benzene (Benzene)

1

3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMITS

Material

Revised IDLH Value (mg/m3)

Revised IDLH Value (ppm)

benzene

 

500

 

 

 

 

 

ODOUR SAFETY FACTOR (OSF)

OSF=0.042 (BENZENE)
Exposed individuals are NOT reasonably expected to be warned, by smell, that the Exposure Standard is being exceeded.
Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is determined to fall into either Class C, D or E.
The Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is defined as:
OSF= Exposure Standard (TWA) ppm/ Odour Threshold Value (OTV) ppm
Classification into classes follows:

Class

OSF

Description

A

550

Over 90% of exposed individuals are aware by smell that the Exposure Standard (TLV-TWA for example) is being reached, even when distracted by working activities

B

26-550

As "A" for 50-90% of persons being distracted

C

1-26

As "A" for less than 50% of persons being distracted

D

0.18-1

10-50% of persons aware of being tested perceive by smell that the Exposure Standard is being reached

E

<0.18

As "D" for less than 10% of persons aware of being tested

.

 

 

 

 

MATERIAL DATA

Exposure limits with "skin" notation indicate that vapour and liquid may be absorbed through intact skin. Absorption by skin may readily exceed vapour inhalation exposure. Symptoms for skin absorption are the same as for inhalation. Contact with eyes and mucous membranes may also contribute to overall exposure and may also invalidate the exposure standard.
Odour Threshold Value: 34 ppm (detection), 97 ppm (recognition)
NOTE: Detector tubes for benzene, measuring in excess of 0.5 ppm, are commercially available. The relative quality of epidemiological data and quantitative health risk assessments related to documented and theoretical leukaemic deaths constitute the basis of the TLV-recommendation.
One study [Dow Chemical] demonstrates a significant fourfold increase in myelogenous leukaemia for workers exposed to average benzene concentrations of about 5 ppm for an average of 9 years and that 2 out of four individuals in the study who died from leukaemia were characterised as having been exposed to average benzene levels below 2 ppm. Based on such findings the estimated risk of leukaemia in workers exposed at daily benzene concentrations of 10 ppm for 40 years is 155 times that of unexposed workers; at 1 ppm the risk falls to 1.7 times whilst at 0.1 ppm the risk is about the same in the two groups. A revision of the TLV-TWA to 0.1 ppm was proposed in 1990 but this has been revised upwards as result of industry initiatives.
Typical toxicities displayed following inhalation:

  • At 25 ppm (8 hours): no effect
  • 50-150 ppm : signs of intoxication within 5 hours
  • 500-1500 ppm : signs of intoxication within 1 hour
  • 7500 ppm : severe intoxication within 30-60 minutes
  • 20000 ppm : fatal within 5-10 minutes

Some jurisdictions require that health surveillance be conducted on occupationally exposed workers. Some surveillance should emphasise (i) demography, occupational and medical history and health advice
(ii) baseline blood sample for haematological profile (iii) records of personal exposure.

 

 

 

 

PERSONAL PROTECTION

 

 

 

 

EYE

  • Safety glasses with side shields.
  • Chemical goggles.
  • Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use and an account of injury experience. Medical and first-aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59]

HANDS/FEET

Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Factors such as:

  • frequency and duration of contact,
  • chemical resistance of glove material,
  • glove thickness and
  • dexterity,

are important in the selection of gloves.
Wear chemical protective gloves, eg. PVC.
Wear safety footwear or safety gumboots, eg. Rubber.

OTHER

  • Prior to each exit from an area containing confirmed human carcinogens, employees should be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers must be identified with suitable labels. For maintenance and decontamination activities, authorized employees entering the area should be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood.
  • Prior to removing protective garments the employee should undergo decontamination and be required to shower upon removal of the garments and hood.
  • Overalls.
  • PVC Apron.
  • PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
  • Eyewash unit.
  • Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.
  • Employees working with confirmed human carcinogens should be provided with, and be required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.
  • Employees engaged in handling operations involving carcinogens should be provided with, and required to wear and use half-face filter-type respirators with filters for dusts, mists and fumes, or air purifying canisters or cartridges. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.
  • Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains, supplied with potable water, should be located near, within sight of, and on the same level with locations where direct exposure is likely.

GLOVE SELECTION INDEX

Glove selection is based on a modified presentation of the:

"Forsberg Clothing Performance Index".

The effect(s) of the following substance(s) are taken into account in the computer-generated selection: benzene

Protective Material CPI *.

PE/EVAL/PE

A

PVA

A

TEFLON

A

VITON

A

VITON/NEOPRENE

A

NITRILE+PVC

C

BUTYL

C

NITRILE

C

NEOPRENE

C

PVC

C

NATURAL RUBBER

C

BUTYL/NEOPRENE

C

* CPI - Chemwatch Performance Index

A: Best Selection

B: Satisfactory; may degrade after 4 hours continuous immersion

C: Poor to Dangerous Choice for other than short term immersion

NOTE: As a series of factors will influence the actual performance of the glove, a final selection must be based on detailed observation. -

* Where the glove is to be used on a short term, casual or infrequent basis, factors such as "feel" or convenience (e.g. disposability), may dictate a choice of gloves which might otherwise be unsuitable following long-term or frequent use. A qualified practitioner should be consulted.

RESPIRATOR

Selection of the Class and Type of respirator will depend upon the level of breathing zone contaminant and the chemical nature of the contaminant. Protection Factors (defined as the ratio of contaminant outside and inside the mask) may also be important.

Breathing Zone Level ppm (volume)

Maximum Protection Factor

Half-face Respirator

Full-Face Respirator

1000

10

A-AUS

-

1000

50

-

A-AUS

5000

50

Airline *

-

5000

100

-

A-2

10000

100

-

A-3

 

100+

 

Airline**

* - Continuous Flow ** - Continuous-flow or positive pressure demand.
The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required.
For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.

 

 

 

 

ENGINEERING CONTROLS

For flammable liquids and flammable gases, local exhaust ventilation or a process enclosure ventilation system may be required. Ventilation equipment should be explosion-resistant.
Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying "escape" velocities which, in turn, determine the "capture velocities" of fresh circulating air required to effectively remove the contaminant.

Type of Contaminant:

Air Speed:

solvent, vapours, degreasing etc., evaporating from tank (in still air).

0.25-0.5 m/s (50-100 f/min.)

aerosols, fumes from pouring operations, intermittent container filling, low speed conveyer transfers, welding, spray drift, plating acid fumes, pickling (released at low velocity into zone of active generation)

0.5-1 m/s (100-200 f/min.)

direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion)

1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)

Within each range the appropriate value depends on:

Lower end of the range

Upper end of the range

1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture

1: Disturbing room air currents

2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only.

2: Contaminants of high toxicity

3: Intermittent, low production.

3: High production, heavy use

4: Large hood or large air mass in motion

4: Small hood-local control only

Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 1-2 m/s (200-400 f/min.) for extraction of solvents generated in a tank 2 meters distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used.

  • Employees exposed to confirmed human carcinogens should be authorized to do so by the employer, and work in a regulated area.
  • Work should be undertaken in an isolated system such as a "glove-box" . Employees should wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.
  • Within regulated areas, the carcinogen should be stored in sealed containers, or enclosed in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while the carcinogens are contained within.
  • Open-vessel systems are prohibited.
  • Each operation should be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation.
  • Exhaust air should not be discharged to regulated areas, non-regulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean make-up air should be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain correct operation of the local exhaust system.
  • For maintenance and decontamination activities, authorized employees entering the area should be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood. Prior to removing protective garments the employee should undergo decontamination and be required to shower upon removal of the garments and hood.
  • Except for outdoor systems, regulated areas should be maintained under negative pressure (with respect to non-regulated areas).
  • Local exhaust ventilation requires make-up air be supplied in equal volumes to replaced air.
  • Laboratory hoods must be designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet/ min. with a minimum of 125 feet/ min. Design and construction of the fume hood requires that insertion of any portion of the employees body, other than hands and arms, be disallowed.

 

 

 

 

 

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

 

 

 

 

 

APPEARANCE

Clear, highly flammable liquid; floats on water. Characteristic aromatic odour. Highly volatile. Mixes with alcohol, chloroform, ether, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, glacial acetic acid, acetone and oils.

 

 

 

 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

 

 

 

 

Liquid.
Does not mix with water.
Floats on water.

Molecular Weight: 78.12

Boiling Range (°C): 80

Melting Range (°C): 5.5

Specific Gravity (water=1): 0.879 @ 20 C

Solubility in water (g/L): Immiscible

pH (as supplied): Not applicable

pH (1% solution): Not applicable.

Vapour Pressure (kPa): 9.95 @ 20 C

Volatile Component (%vol): 100

Evaporation Rate: Fast

Relative Vapour Density (air=1): 2.77

Flash Point (°C): -11

Lower Explosive Limit (%): 1.3

Upper Explosive Limit (%): 7.9

Autoignition Temp (°C): 562

Decomposition Temp (°C): Not Available

State: Liquid

Viscosity: Not Available

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 10 - CHEMICAL STABILITY AND REACTIVITY INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO INSTABILITY

  • Presence of incompatible materials.
  • Product is considered stable.
  • Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.

 

 

 

 

 

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

 

 

 

 

ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS

SWALLOWED

Swallowing of the liquid may cause aspiration into the lungs with the risk of chemical pneumonitis; serious consequences may result. (ICSC13733).
Although ingestion is not thought to produce harmful effects (as classified under EC Directives), the material may still be damaging to the health of the individual, following ingestion, especially where pre-existing organ (e.g. liver, kidney) damage is evident. Present definitions of harmful or toxic substances are generally based on doses producing mortality rather than those producing morbidity (disease, ill-health). Gastrointestinal tract discomfort may produce nausea and vomiting. In an occupational setting however, ingestion of insignificant quantities is not thought to be cause for concern.
Central nervous system (CNS) depression may include general discomfort, symptoms of giddiness, headache, dizziness, nausea, anaesthetic effects, slowed reaction time, slurred speech and may progress to unconsciousness. Serious poisonings may result in respiratory depression and may be fatal.
Accidental ingestion of the material may be harmful; animal experiments indicate that ingestion of less than 150 gram may be fatal or may produce serious damage to the health of the individual.

EYE

There is evidence that material may produce eye irritation in some persons and produce eye damage 24 hours or more after instillation. Severe inflammation may be expected with pain. There may be damage to the cornea. Unless treatment is prompt and adequate there may be permanent loss of vision. Conjunctivitis can occur following repeated exposure.

SKIN

The material may cause moderate inflammation of the skin either following direct contact or after a delay of some time. Repeated exposure can cause contact dermatitis which is characterised by redness, swelling and blistering.
Skin contact is not thought to have harmful health effects (as classified under EC Directives); the material may still produce health damage following entry through wounds, lesions or abrasions.
Entry into the blood-stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.
Exposure limits with "skin" notation indicate that vapour and liquid may be absorbed through intact skin. Absorption by skin may readily exceed vapour inhalation exposure. Symptoms for skin absorption are the same as for inhalation. Contact with eyes and mucous membranes may also contribute to overall exposure and may also invalidate the exposure standard.
The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skin redness, swelling, the production of vesicles, scaling and thickening of the skin.

INHALED

The material is not thought to produce adverse health effects or irritation of the respiratory tract (as classified by EC Directives using animal models). Nevertheless, good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable control measures be used in an occupational setting.
Inhalation of vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. This may be accompanied by sleepiness, reduced alertness, loss of reflexes, lack of co-ordination, and vertigo.
Inhalation of high concentrations of gas/vapour causes lung irritation with coughing and nausea, central nervous depression with headache and dizziness, slowing of reflexes, fatigue and inco-ordination.
Central nervous system (CNS) depression may include general discomfort, symptoms of giddiness, headache, dizziness, nausea, anaesthetic effects, slowed reaction time, slurred speech and may progress to unconsciousness. Serious poisonings may result in respiratory depression and may be fatal.
If exposure to highly concentrated solvent atmosphere is prolonged this may lead to narcosis, unconsciousness, even coma and possible death.
The symptoms of exposure to high vapour concentrations of benzene include confusion, dizziness, tightening of the leg muscles and pressure over the forehead followed by a period of excitement. If exposure continues, the casualty quickly becomes stupefied and lapses into a coma with narcosis. In non-fatal cases, recovery is usual. Effects of inhalation may include nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, weakness, sometimes preceded by brief periods of inco-ordination, staggering, weak and rapid pulse, chest pain and tightness with breathlessness, pallor, cyanosis of the lips and fingertips and ringing in the ears. Severe exposures may produce blurred vision, shallow rapid breathing, delirium, heartbeat irregularities, unconsciousness, deep anaesthaesia, paralysis and coma, with motor restlessness, tremors, and brisk reflexes occasionally preceded by convulsions. Polyneuritis and persistent nausea, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, headache, drowsiness, sleeplessness and agitation may also occur. 2-3 weeks after exposure, nervous irritability, breathlessness and unsteady gait may still persist; cardiac distress and unusual discolouration of the skin may be evident for up to 4 weeks. Toxicity to the blood is not usually a feature of acute exposures, although anaemia, loss of platelets, petechial bleeding, and spontaneous internal bleeding may occur. Fatal exposures may result in suffocation, central nervous system depression, cardiac and respiratory failure and circulatory collapse; sudden ventricular fibrillation may also be fatal. Death may be sudden or may be delayed for 24 hours. Central nervous system, respiratory or bleeding complications may occur up to five days after exposure and may be lethal; pathological findings include congestion, cerebral (brain) oedema, and lung haemorrhage, kidney congestion, and extensive petechial bleeding in the brain, pleurae, pericardium, urinary tract, mucous membranes and skin. Exposure to toxic levels has also damaged chromosomes.

 

 

 

 

CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
This material can cause serious damage if one is exposed to it for long periods. It can be assumed that it contains a substance which can produce severe defects. This has been demonstrated via both short- and long-term experimentation.
Chronic exposure to benzene may cause headache, fatigue, loss of appetite and lassitude with incipient blood effects including anaemia and blood changes. Benzene is a myelotoxicant known to suppress bone- marrow cell proliferation and to induce haematologic disorders in humans and animals. Signs of benzene-induced aplastic anaemia include suppression of leukocytes (leukopenia), red cells (anaemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia) or all three cell types (pancytopenia). Classic symptoms include weakness, purpura, and haemorrhage. The most significant toxic effect is insidious and often reversible injury to the blood forming tissue. Leukaemia may develop. Occupational exposures have shown a relationship between exposure to benzene and production of myelogenous leukaemia. There may also be a relationship between benzene exposure and the production of lymphoma and multiple myeloma. In chronic exposure, workers exhibit signs of central nervous system lesions and impairment of hearing.

 

 

 

 

TOXICITY AND IRRITATION

unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.

TOXICITY

IRRITATION

Oral (man) LDLo: 50 mg/kg

SKIN (RABBIT):20 MG/24H - Moderate

Oral (rat) LD50: 930 mg/kg

Eye (rabbit): 2 mg/24h - SEVERE

Inhalation (rat) LC50: 10000 ppm/7h

 

Inhalation (human) LCLo: 2000 ppm/5m

 

Inhalation (man) TCLo: 150 ppm/1y - I

 

Inhalation (human) TCLo: 100 ppm

 

 

MATERIAL

CARCINOGEN

REPROTOXIN

SENSITISER

SKIN


 


 


 


 


 

benzene

ANMRCSCS IARC:1 AOHS NOHSC NTPA

ILOEl

 

 

CARCINOGEN
ANMRCSCS: Australia Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National
Standards) Regulations 1994 - Scheduled Carcinogenic Substance: benzene Category:
CARCINOGEN
IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Carcinogens: benzene Category:
WARNING: This substance has been classified by the IARC as Group 1: CARCINOGENIC TO
HUMANS.
CARCINOGEN
AOHS: Australia Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National
Standards) Regulations 1994 - Scheduled Carcinogenic Substance: benzene
Circumstance: When contained in a feedstock containing more than 50% of benzene by
volume
CARCINOGEN
NOHSC: Australia Exposure Standards - Carcinogens: benzene
Carcinogen Category: 1
CARCINOGEN
NTPA: US National Toxicology Program (NTP) 11th Report Part A Known to be Human
Carcinogens: benzene Category:
REPROTOXIN
ILOEl: ILO Chemicals in the electronics industry that have toxic effects on
reproduction: benzene

 

 

 

 

 

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

Hazardous Air Pollutant:

Yes

Fish LC50 (96hr.) (mg/l):

32

BCF<100:

24

log Kow (Prager 1995):

2.31

log Kow (Sangster 1997):

2.13

log Pow (Verschueren 1983):

2.13

Half- life Soil - High (hours):

384

Half- life Soil - Low (hours):

120

Half- life Air - High (hours):

501

Half- life Air - Low (hours):

50.1

Half- life Surface water - High (hours):

384

Half- life Surface water - Low (hours):

120

Half- life Ground water - High (hours):

17280

Half- life Ground water - Low (hours):

240

Aqueous biodegradation - Aerobic - High (hours):

384

Aqueous biodegradation - Aerobic - Low (hours):

120

Aqueous biodegradation - Anaerobic - High (hours):

17280

Aqueous biodegradation - Anaerobic - Low (hours):

2688

Aqueous biodegradation - Removal secondary treatment - High (hours):

100%

Aqueous biodegradation - Removal secondary treatment - Low (hours):

44%

Aqueous photolysis half- life - High (hours):

16152

Aqueous photolysis half- life - Low (hours):

2808

Photolysis maximum light absorption - High (nano- m):

268

Photolysis maximum light absorption - Low (nano- m):

239

Aqueous photolysis half- life - High (hours):

16152

Aqueous photolysis half- life - Low (hours):

2808

Photooxidation half- life water - High (hours):

3.20E+05

Photooxidation half- life water - Low (hours):

8021

Photooxidation half- life air - High (hours):

501

Photooxidation half- life air - Low (hours):

50.1

The lower molecular weight hydrocarbons are expected to form a "slick" on the surface of waters after release in calm sea conditions. This is expected to evaporate and enter the atmosphere where it will be degraded through reaction with hydroxy radicals.
Some of the material will become associated with benthic sediments, and it is likely to be spread over a fairly wide area of sea floor. Marine sediments may be either aerobic or anaerobic. The material, in probability, is biodegradable, under aerobic conditions (isomerised olefins and alkenes show variable results). Evidence also suggests that the hydrocarbons may be degradable under anaerobic conditions although such degradation in benthic sediments may be a relatively slow process.
Under aerobic conditions the material will degrade to water and carbon dioxide, while under anaerobic processes it will produce water, methane and carbon dioxide.
Based on test results, as well as theoretical considerations, the potential for bioaccumulation may be high. Toxic effects are often observed in species such as blue mussel, daphnia, freshwater green algae, marine copepods and amphipods.
Drinking Water Standards:
hydrocarbon total: 10 ug/l (UK max.).
DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways.
log Kow: 1.95-2.15
log Koc: 1.7-2
Koc: 98
log Kom: 1.04-2.56
Half-life (hr) air: 2.4-501
Half-life (hr) H2O surface water: 4.81-384
Half-life (hr) H2O ground: 240-17280
Half-life (hr) soil: 48-922
Henry's Pa m³ /mol: 441-595
Henry's atm m³ /mol: 5.43E-03
BOD 5 if unstated: 2.18
COD: 0.25-2.8
ThOD: 3.1
BCF: 3.5-3.9
Log BCF: 0.54-1.48
Toxicity Fish: LC50(96)9.5-386mg/L
Toxicity invertebrate: cell mult. inhib.92-#90etox1700mg/L
Nitrif. inhib.: nil at 500mg/L
Anaerobic effects: slow degrad
Effects on algae and plankton: cell mult. inhib. >1400mg/L
Degradation Biological: slow
processes Abiotic: little photol,Rxn OH*,no hydrol
If benzene is released to the atmosphere it remains predominantly in the
vapour phase.
Vapour phase benzene is not subject to direct photolysis but reacts with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life approximately
13.4 days). Reaction time in polluted atmospheres which contain nitrogen
oxide (NO) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) is accelerated (half-life 4-6 hours);
products of photooxidation include phenol, nitrophenols, nitrobenzene,
formic acid and peroxyacetyl nitrates.
In water, benzene is rapidly volatilised (half-life 2.7 hours).
In soil benzene undergoes rapid volatilisation; it is not absorbed,
to any appreciable degree, by sediments.
Benzene does not bioaccumulate in the food chain.
Drinking Water Standards:
hydrocarbon total: 10 ug/l (UK max.)
benzene: 10 ug/l (WHO guideline)
Soil Guidelines: Dutch Criteria:
0.05 mg/kg (detection limit) target
1 mg/kg (intervention)
Air Quality Standards:
1 ppb averaging time 1 year (UK)
No safe level recommended due to carcinogenic properties (WHO Guideline)

 

 

 

 

 

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

  • Recycle wherever possible.
  • Consult manufacturer for recycling options or consult local or regional waste management authority for disposal if no suitable treatment or disposal facility can be identified.
  • Dispose of by: Burial in a licenced land-fill or Incineration in a licenced apparatus (after admixture with suitable combustible material).
  • Decontaminate empty containers. Observe all label safeguards until containers are cleaned and destroyed.
  • Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
  • Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.

Otherwise:

  • If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
  • Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.

 

 

 

 

 

Section 14 - TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Labels Required: FLAMMABLE LIQUID
HAZCHEM: 3WE

UNDG:

Dangerous Goods Class:

3

Subrisk:

None

UN Number:

1114

Packing Group:

II

Shipping Name:BENZENE

Air Transport IATA:

ICAO/IATA Class:

3

ICAO/IATA Subrisk:

None

UN/ID Number:

1114

Packing Group:

II

Special provisions:

None

 

 

Shipping Name: BENZENE

Maritime Transport IMDG:

IMDG Class:

3

IMDG Subrisk:

None

UN Number:

1114

Packing Group:

II

EMS Number:

F-E,S-D

Special provisions:

None

Limited Quantities:

1 L

 

 

Shipping Name: BENZENE

 

 

 

 

 

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

POISONS SCHEDULE

S7 NZS2

 

 

 

 

REGULATIONS

benzene (CAS: 71- 43- 2) is found on the following regulatory lists;
Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental standards (Domestic water
supply - organic compounds)
Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants entering waterways taken to cause
environmental harm (Aquatic habitat)
Australia - Australian Capital Territory Environment Protection Regulation Ecosystem maintenance - Organic chemicals - Non-
pesticide anthropogenic organics
Australia - Australian Capital Territory Environment Protection Regulation Pollutants entering waterways - Domestic water
quality
Australia - New South Wales Hazardous Substances Prohibited for Specific Uses
Australia - New South Wales Hazardous Substances Requiring Health Surveillance
Australia - New South Wales Notifiable Carcinogens
Australia - Tasmania Hazardous Substances Requiring Health Surveillance
Australia - Victoria - Hazardous Substances - Carcinogens Schedule 2 [NLV]
Australia - Western Australia Carcinogenic substances to be used only for purposes approved by the Commissioner
Australia - Western Australia Hazardous Substances Requiring Health Surveillance
Australia Exposure Standards
Australia Exposure Standards Currently Under Review
Australia Hazardous Substances
Australia Hazardous Substances Requiring Health Surveillance
Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)
Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)
Australia National Model Regulations for the Control of Scheduled Carcinogenic Substances
Australia National Pollutant Inventory
Australia Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National Standards) Regulations 1994 - Hazardous
Substances Requiring Health Surveillance
Australia Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National Standards) Regulations 1994 - Scheduled
Carcinogenic Substance
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP) - Appendix E (Part 2)
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP) - Appendix F (Part 3)
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP) - Appendix J (Part 2)
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP) - Schedule 5
Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP) - Schedule 7
IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Carcinogens
International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations
OECD Representative List of High Production Volume (HPV) Chemicals

 

 

 

 

 

Section 16 - OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

Established occupational exposure limits frequently do not take into consideration reproductive end points that are clearly below the thresholds for other toxic effects. Occupational reproductive guidelines (ORGs) have been suggested as an additional standard. These have been established after a literature search for reproductive no-observed-adverse effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL). In addition the US EPA's procedures for risk assessment for hazard identification and dose-response assessment as applied by NIOSH were used in the creation of such limits. Uncertainty factors (UFs) have also been incorporated.

Ingredient

ORG

UF

Endpoint

CR

Adeq TLV

benzene

0.05 mg/m3

1000

D

1.4

-

These exposure guidelines have been derived from a screening level of risk assessment and should not be construed as unequivocally safe limits. ORGS represent an 8-hour time-weighted average unless specified otherwise.
CR = Cancer Risk/10000; UF = Uncertainty factor:
TLV believed to be adequate to protect reproductive health:
LOD: Limit of detection
Toxic endpoints have also been identified as:
D = Developmental; R = Reproductive; TC = Transplacental carcinogen
Jankovic J., Drake F.: A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 57: 641-649 (1996).

 

 

 

 

Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:
www.chemwatch.net/references.

 

 

 

 

The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.

 

 

 

 

This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.

 

 

 

 


Issue Date: 5-Jun-2007

 

 

 

 

Print Date: 23-Jun-2008